Running an sfc /scannow on a Windows Server 2019 Standard server, at about 76% it failed with the following message.

Windows Resource Protection could not perform the requested operation.
Edit

Looking through %Windir%\Windows\Logs\CBS.log I see the following:

2023-08-17 15:34:41, Error                 CSI    00004fa8 (F) c0000011 [Error,Facility=(system),Code=17 (0x0011)] #38088700# from Windows::Rtl::SystemImplementation::DirectFileSystemProvider::SysReadFile(h = cd4 ('\Device\HarddiskVolume2\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_windows-defender-management-powershell_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.17763.831_none_5892c02f26f780e5\MSFT_MpComputerStatus.cdxml'), evt = 0, apcr = NULL, apcc = NULL, iosb = @0x45dec7c050, data = {l:0 b:}, byteoffset = (null), key = (null))
[gle=0xd0000011]
2023-08-17 15:34:41, Error                 CSI    00004fa9@2023/8/17:19:34:41.397 (F) onecore\base\wcp\sil\ntsystem.cpp(3610): Error c0000011 [Error,Facility=(system),Code=17 (0x0011)] originated in function Windows::Rtl::SystemImplementation::DirectFileSystemProvider::SysReadFile expression: (null)
[gle=0x80004005]
2023-08-17 15:34:41, Info                  CBS    Could not get active session for current session file logging [HRESULT = 0x80004003 - E_POINTER]
2023-08-17 15:34:41, Info                  CBS    Could not get file name for current session file logging [HRESULT = 0x80004003 - E_POINTER]
2023-08-17 15:34:41, Info                  CBS    Added C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CBS.log to WER report.

Event Viewer details three events:

Fault bucket 1793356441015391089, type 5
Event Name: WindowsWcpOtherFailure3
Response: Not available
Cab Id: 0

Problem signature:
P1: 10.0.17763.4640:3
P2: wcp\sil\ntsystem.cpp
P3: Windows::Rtl::SystemImplementation::DirectFileSystemProvider::SysReadFile
P4: 3610
P5: c0000011
P6: 0x435f651d
P7:
P8:
P9:
P10:

Attached files:
\\?\C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CBS.log
\\?\C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CbsPersist_20230817123621.log
\\?\C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CbsPersist_20230816233716.log
\\?\C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CbsPersist_20230815183505.log
\\?\C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CbsPersist_20230814052711.log
\\?\C:\Windows\Logs\CBS\CbsPersist_20230812022642.cab
\\?\C:\Windows\servicing\Sessions\Sessions.xml
\\?\C:\Windows\WinSxs\poqexec.log
\\?\C:\Windows\Logs\Cbs\FilterList.log
\\?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WERB67.tmp.WERInternalMetadata.xml
\\?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WERBA6.tmp.xml
\\?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WERC42.tmp.csv
\\?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WERC62.tmp.txt
\\?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WERC92.tmp.mdmp
\\?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\ReportQueue\Critical_10.0.17763.4640__7ecf3189d0be67147e71f883985df1bed431e6e_00000000_cab_17b40ef1\memory.hdmp
\\?\C:\Windows\Temp\WEREF4.tmp.WERDataCollectionStatus.txt

These files may be available here:
\\?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\ReportArchive\Critical_10.0.17763.4640__7ecf3189d0be67147e71f883985df1bed431e6e_00000000_10e8155a

Analysis symbol:
Rechecking for solution: 0
Report Id: b33a6f7e-74bf-456a-a60e-9af2f5c88c59
Report Status: 268435456
Hashed bucket: 8f95577d69101277c8e3482e76619371
Cab Guid: 0
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